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Windows is a computer operating system created and developed by the multinational company Microsoft. It was first released in 1985 and has since become one of the most widely used operating systems worldwide.

Windows provides a graphical user interface (GUI), a variety of software applications, and networking capabilities, among other features. It is designed to be used on personal computers, including desktops, laptops, tablets, and servers.

History of Windows

Development of Windows began in the early 1980s, when Microsoft began working on a graphical operating system to compete with Apple's Macintosh operating system. In 1985, Microsoft released Windows 1.0, which was not a complete operating system, but a graphical interface that ran on top of the MS-DOS operating system.

Here is a detail of the evolution of Windows over the years, highlighting the most important dates and milestones:

  • 1985: Windows 1.0. First release of Windows. It is not a complete operating system, but a graphical user interface that runs on MS-DOS.
  • 1987: Windows 2.0. It introduces windows that can overlap and the ability to minimize or maximize windows.
  • 1990: Windows 3.0. It introduces significant improvements in the graphical interface and memory management.
  • 1992: Windows 3.1. Provides stability and user interface improvements.
  • 1995: Windows 95. It is a major UI upgrade and marks the transition of Windows from a graphical user interface to a full operating system.
  • 1998: Windows 98. It introduces support for a number of new technologies, including FAT32 and USB.
  • 2000: Windows 2000. It offers improvements in stability and security.
  • 2001: Windows XP. It was the first release to unify Microsoft's product lines for consumers and businesses.
  • 2006: Windows Vista. Despite criticism for performance and compatibility issues, it introduces a number of new features, including the Aero user interface.
  • 2009: Windows 7. Released to address criticisms of Windows Vista, it is well received for its stability and performance.
  • 2012: Windows 8. It features a radical change in user interface to fit touchscreens, but is criticized for its learning curve.
  • 2015: Windows 10. It combines elements of the Windows 7 and 8 user interface, and adds features like the Cortana virtual assistant.
  • 2021: Windows 11. The latest version of the operating system, with a focused user interface and support for Android apps.

Windows functions and features

Windows is known for its graphical user interface, which includes the Start menu, taskbar, and desktop, where shortcuts to files and applications can be placed. In addition to the user interface, Windows also offers a variety of functions and features, such as the NTFS file system, support for a wide range of hardware and software, and a platform for developing and running applications.

Some of the main functions and features of Windows include:

  • Graphical user interface: Windows offers an intuitive and easy-to-use graphical user interface. Users can interact with the operating system through windows, icons, menus, and other graphical elements.
  • Compatibility: Windows supports a wide range of hardware and software, allowing users to install and use a variety of devices and applications.
  • Security: Windows includes several security features, such as Windows Firewall, Windows Defender, User Account Control, and BitLocker.
  • Customization: Windows allows users to customize the appearance and behavior of the operating system. Users can change the desktop background, colors, sounds, and many other aspects of the user interface.

Advantages and disadvantages of Windows

Like any operating system, Windows has its advantages and disadvantages. Below are some of the most notable:


  • Compatibility with a wide range of hardware and software.
  • User-friendly user interface.
  • Extensive user base and technical support.
  • Availability of a large number of applications.


  • It requires frequent updates to maintain system security.
  • It may be vulnerable to viruses and malware.
  • Higher usage of system resources compared to other operating systems like Linux.

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